Awning windows are similar to a casement window that is turned on its side except that they have very different and special hardware. This special hardware allows the window to be hinged at the top and open towards the outside from the bottom.
Awning windows can actually provide some protection from the rain in the open position just like an 'awning'. Awning windows can be combined with Casement windows and Picture windows to create dramatic sightlines and combination windows.
Hopper windows are windows somewhat similar to Awning windows yet almost the opposite. Hoppers are hinged at the bottom of the window and open up from the top falling into the inside of the home. Hoppers are commonly used in basements, and especially in places where there is minimal room for a window to project into the outside.